Research by a PhD scholar into trade mis-invoicing in India between 2007 and 2017 indicates that patterns of over- and under-invoicing vary by the product as well as by trading partner.

Using trade data to reveal discrepancies between reported values of imports and exports according to Indian data and data from its trading partners, Aastha Jain found that for some products, discrepancies appeared quite minor. But in terms of percentages and the amount of revenues not captured by states, the data presents a dismal picture.

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