Difficulties associated with tracing illicit gold flows and the large number of actors involved in gold smuggling have contributed to a crisis with limited chances to even engage in efforts to address the issue of illicit financial flows (IFFs) from the production and trade of gold from Venezuela according to analysis by the Brookings Institution.

The Washington based non-profit public policy organisation says the issue includes the limited availability of trade and customs data, which could help anti-corruption advocates better diagnose the scope and origins of resource flows, and the complex, transnational nature of the problem.

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